Why do bees make bee bread?
Bee's growth and development needs of the carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and other nutrients, the main source of carbohydrate in honey and dietary carbohydrate, and other nutrients are derived from bee pollen or artificial feeding pollen substitute to feed. The traditional idea that bee is on feed on pollen gets protein and minerals, vitamins and other nutrients, but in fact the colony to normal, bees do not directly feed on pollen, but will pollen and a small amount of honey mix their own saliva, make a bee bread to eat. Why don't you eat fresh pollen directly?
This is because fresh pollen: poisonous. Bees collect pollen, to obtain the pollen nutrition, but plants in nature after millions of years of evolution, evolved a mechanism to protect their own, in order to avoid by phytophagous animal feeding, some plants rely on spikes, barb, fluff, waxy layer defense organizations, more plants is the choice of chemical weapons: the toxin. These toxic substances exist not only in plant leaves, roots, are also present in the flowers bees gather pollen from these plants, naturally can not be avoided plant toxins, but bees own clever way to overcome. The following is a simple list of several plant chemical defense, to provide a reference for the bee:
Soybean: soybean is rich in nutrition and high in protein, but there are also many kinds of toxic components and anti nutritional factors. Inhibition of factor (TI), soybean agglutinin (SBA), urease, phytic acid, saponins, isoflavones, single Ning and oligosaccharides soybean globulin (glycinin), beta with soybean globulin (beta) -conglycinin trypsin soybean and its processed products in the presence of anti nutritional factors. Heating can eliminate part of anti nutritional factors, but protein can also be damaged, greatly reduced digestibility; even the thermal stability of anti nutritional factors: soybean protein, beta with soybean protein, isoflavone, tannins, phytic acid, saponins and other heating can not be removed. Soybean Antinutritional Factors in soybean ball protein accounted for about 40% of the soybean protein, beta with glycinin accounted for soybean protein 30%. That is to say, only the two anti nutrients accounted for 70% of the soybean protein content, these are bees digestive system can not directly digest. In accordance with the soybean protein content of 50%, the actual digestible protein was only 15%, lower than the rape pollen, and most of the bees are very close to the use of the actual effect.
Rape, rape, mustard and other cruciferous plants contain anti nutritional factors in glucosinolate (mustard glycosides), usually in the form of potash, itself is non-toxic, in under the action of digestive enzymes, resulting in toxic oxazolidine thione (OZT), isothiocyanate (ITC) and thiocyanate ester. Oxazolidine thione affect living organisms use of iodine, hinder the thyroxine synthesis, liver function damaged, causing metabolic disorders, affecting protein, amino acid biosynthesis, in addition to inhibit reproductive system development, the destruction of reproductive function.
Buckwheat: buckwheat cells contain a large number of protease inhibitors, resulting in low digestibility of buckwheat protein.
Camellia Pollen contains tea: tea saponin, camellia seed can be used to kill the fish pond, is widely used in medicine.
Other plants and pollen in many also contain plant toxins, variety, a lot of toxic components are for insects, because insects are the principal enemy of plants, they will eat the leaves of the plant, leading to plant death.
See here a lot of bee friends may want to ask, what did that person eat to be all right? This is because 1 people eat cooked food, after a lot of toxic ingredients have been processed at high temperature treatment. 2. People eat less, many humans, plants, but was brought as a vegetable or occasionally eat, insignificant effect (such as tobacco, many years of smoking, and has not been poisoned, does not mean that tobacco is not compromised); human beings are omnivorous, not staring at a food eat. 3. Many vegetables do not eat, since Shen Nong tasted a hundred herbs, humans have been able to identify poisonous plants, most poisonous plants, people don't eat. 4 more important is that the staple food of rice, wheat, corn are not containing plant toxins, you can rest assured that food. But for the bees, pollen is the main source of protein, is the staple food of honey bees, so bees must take measures to deal with plant toxins, or they will suffer.
The way the bees are used is to ferment. By mixing a small amount of honey with its own saliva, and then stored in the nest room, after a period of time to eat, bees can resolve most of the toxicity of the plant. Of course, there are occasional bee poisoning cases, this is because some of the toxins fermentation process can not be removed; there are many plant bees do not collect pollen, because the bees are helpless, simply to avoid and far. Through anaerobic fermentation, bees can remove antinutritional factors in pollen, and microbial activity are also rich in vitamin and growth promoting substances, through a fermentation process also produced lactic acid, both contribute to the preservation, but also to improve the taste, in one fell swoop purposes. Bee friends in the preparation of their own bee pollen, it is best to deal with fermentation, so as to meet the physiological characteristics of the bees themselves, to help the digestion and absorption of bees. But their fermentation has many technical difficulties, such as isolated from the air, mastering fermentation progress, bacteria use and difficult and often results in failure, this time as a direct purchase of fermented bees feed, worry and effort effect.
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